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• Padding Properties: CSS Property

• padding-top, padding-right, padding-bottom, padding-left:
The padding properties specify the width of the padding area. The values of the padding width properties belong to the <padding-width> CSS property value group. Padding values can not be negative and when rendered, they are rendered using the background of the generating element.
padding-top, padding-right, padding-bottom, padding-left:
Value: <padding-width> | inherit
Initial: 0
Applies to: all elements except table-row-group, table-header-group, table-footer-group, table-row, table-column-group and table-column
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual
Computed Value: the percentage as specified or the absolute length
Style Group: box
Deprecated: no
Example: body {
   padding-top: 6cm;
   padding-right: 6cm;
   padding-bottom: 6cm;
   padding-left: 6cm;
}


• Padding Shorthand Property: CSS Property
The padding shorthand property sets the padding for all four sides (padding-top, padding-right, padding-bottom, padding-left). Otherwise, the shorthand property behaves like the individual properties. The property definition is also like the individual properties with this one exception:
Value: <padding-width>{1,4} | inherit
Example:   h4 { padding: 4cm; } /*applies width to all edges*/


• Paged Media Group: CSS Property
The paged media group represents those CSS properties that are normally associated with the printed user interface, but the paged media group is appropriate for all of the following media types: embrossed, handheld, print, projection and tv. There are five CSS properties (paged-break-before, paged-break-after, paged-break-inside, paged-break-before, widows) that represent this group. Paged media group is an official CSS term and in this case, it is redundant with our term, paged media style group. Also see CSS Media Group.

• Paged Media Style Group: CSS Property
The paged media style group is one of eleven property style groups that help define the total CSS property set. The paged media group along with the continuous media group make up the two groups that represent the interface (print or screen) with the user. Typically, when we address paged media, we are thinking of a printed interface with the user. Likewise, the continuous media group is most often associated with the user's screen interface. The complete list of properties that comprise the paged media style group are:

• Parameter: JavaScript Function
Here, we are using the term parameter with regards to function statements. Parameters are specified in the function call statement to pass data to a named function. The named function is the name given to an FSD. The parameters that are specified in the FSD are called formal parameters. The parameters that are specified in the function call statement are called actual parameters. The actual parameters should have the same signature as the formal parameters. However the signature rules are not as strict with JavaScript as with other programming language. The data passed as parameters to functions can be in the form of expressions, literals or variables.

• Parent: CSS
An element is said to be the parent of another element if it appears directly above that element in the document tree hierarchy. The element below the parent is the child.

• Parentheses Operator: JavaScript Operator
A parentheses operator ( symbols: ( ) ) will call a function. It will have a function operand ( normally function name ) on the left side of the operator but can have any number of argument operands. The arguments are included inside the parentheses. The parentheses operator evaluates each of the argument operands and then calls the named function with the argument values.
The attributes of this operator are:

• Pattern JavaScript RegExp
The pattern is the criteria expressed in regular expression syntax notation that is to be used for matching against a target string. The grammar for creating a regular expression allows for two arguments; the first argument is the pattern and the second argument is the flag(s). The regular expression patterns used for matching are created using the regular expression literal in an assignment statement or using the RegExp class constructor.

• Percentages, CSS Property Definition: CSS Property
This part of the property definition indicates how percentages should be interpreted, if they occur in the value of the property. If "N/A" appears here, it means that the property does not accept percentages as values.

• Polymorphism: JavaScript OOD
Polymorphism is one of the common OOD principles. Polymorphism means the ability to assume more than one form. Different behaviors are possible with the same operation. The behavior depends on the varietal data used in the operation. With JS, the mechanism to allow polymorphism is the class. The other common OOD principles: abstraction, aggregation, encapsulation and inheritance.

• Positioning Style Group: CSS Property
The positioning style group is one of eleven property style groups that help define the total CSS property set. The positioning style group contains the properties that represent a portion of the properties that support the visual formatting model. The remainder of the properties for the visual formatting model are represented with the visual style group. The complete list of properties that comprise the positioning style group are:

• Possessive Quantifier: JavaScript RegExp
Possessive quantifier (a plus sign after another quantifier) is not nearly as complex as the other two quantifiers (greedy and reluctant). In fact, it is a one match attempt; there is no looping through the target string. If the initial match attempt on the entire target string does not produce a match; its over.

• Postfix Operator Group JavaScript Operator
The postfix operator group is a group of two unary operators. The post increment and the post decrement operators make up the postfix operator group.

• Post-increment and Post-decrement Operations: JavaScript Operator
The key here is "post". If the operator ( symbols: ++ or -- ) is placed after the variable name, the variable is ( incremented or decremented ) by one after the residing expression is executed.
The attributes of this operator are:
  • group: postfix operator group
  • ECMAScript Language Specification Section: 11.3 Postfix Operators
  • operator symbol: ++ or --
  • operator type: unary
  • left operand: lvalue operand
  • right operand: N/A
  • precedence: 14
  • associativity: right to left
  • operator results: side effect: the operation occurs after the residing expression is executed
    • Post-increment: alters the operand by +1
    • Post-decrement: alters the operand by -1


• Precedence: JavaScript Operator
Precedence in this definition is of and pertaining to JavaScript operators. All operators are given an execution priority. Within a given expression, operations will be perform in order of priority. One operation will proceed before another when it has precedence in the operator priority scheme. Javascript operators have 15 levels of priority. Operator precedence can be overridden with the explicit use of parentheses (grouping operator). Note that we choose a precedence scale where 15 indicates the highest precedence and 1 is the lowest.

• Preceding Element: CSS 2.1 Specification
An element A is called a preceding element of an element B, if and only if (1) A is an ancestor of B or (2) A is a preceding sibling of B.

• Predefined Class JavaScript RegExp
Some character group sets are so commonly used that JavaScript established predefined class definitions for the common character sets. For example, the set of ASCII digits, zero through nine, are given the predefined token of (\d). This token is equivalent to [0-9]. So, [\d] and [0-9] are equivalent.

• Prefix Operator Group JavaScript Operator
The prefix operator group is a group of two unary operators. The pre-increment and the pre-decrement operators make up the prefix operator group.

• Pre-increment and Pre-decrement Operations: JavaScript Operator
The key here is "pre". If the operator ( symbols: ++ or -- ) is placed before the operand, the operand is ( incremented or decremented ) by one before the residing expression is executed.
The attributes of this operator are:
  • group: prefix operator group
  • ECMAScript Language Specification Section: 11.4 Unary Operators
  • operator symbol: ++ or --
  • operator type: unary
  • left operand: N/A
  • right operand: lvalue operand
  • precedence: 14
  • associativity: right to left
  • operator results: side effect: the operation occurs before the residing expression is executed
    • Pre-increment: alters the operand by +1
    • Pre-decrement: alters the operand by -1


• Primitive Type: JavaScript Data Type
A primitive type is one of two JS data type groups. The second group is the reference type group. The reference type group includes: Array type, Function type and Object type. The members of primitive type group are: Undefined, Null, Boolean, Number or String. JS is a weakly typed language. A variable of a primitive type will contain actual data reflective of the primitive type. Reference type variables contain a pointer to the actual data which is stored in the heap. Primitive types are stored on the stack and are accessed directly from the stored location.

• Primitive Value: JavaScript Value
A primitive value is a member of one of the following primitive types of values: Undefined, Null, Boolean, Number or String. JS is a weakly typed language. It is the value that determines the type. Each type has a pre-set range of values that will determine the appropriate type.

• Program Control Structures: JavaScript Term
Program control structures are used to alter program flow and provide an alternative to sequential program flow. Computer programs have three ways for processing statements:
  • Sequence: Program flow is strictly sequential. There are no choices to be made and no repetition.
  • Selection: With selection, the program executes certain statements dependent on conditional expressions.
  • Repetition: With repetition, the program repeats certain statements depending on conditions.
With JS, selection is accomplished with the if/else and the switch statements. Repetition is accomplished with the while, do/while, for and for/in statements.

• Property: JavaScript Object
A property is a named member of an object or class. To reference a property, one uses the object name, followed by the access operator (period) and then the property name. With JS, we have the following kinds of properties:
  • class property: the class property is defined in and invoked through the class constructor.
  • instance property: invoked through an object. It has three flavors:
    1. defined in the class constructor and invoked through the objects of the class type. (each instance has it's own copy)
    2. defined in the prototype object of the class constructor and invoked through the objects of the class type. (all instances inherit the property and share one copy)
    3. defined in a single object instance and invoked from only that instance. (one copy and no sharing)


• Property, CSS: CSS Property
The term property when applied to CSS will identify what is being defined for a given style declaration (rule). The CSS properties are many and each one will influence a unique aspect of a page's content and appearance. Each CSS property has a designated set of possible values. The property along with the assigned value make up the property declaration. Each property belongs to a property group.
CSS 2.1 Specification
CSS defines a finite set of parameters, called properties, that direct the rendering of a document. Each property has a name (e.g., 'color', 'font' or border') and a value (e.g., 'red', '12pt Times' or 'dotted'). Properties are attached to various parts of the document and to the page on which the document is to be displayed by the mechanisms of specificity, cascading and inheritance

• Property Declaration: CSS Property
A property declaration includes a CSS property, the assigned property value and the appropriate declaration syntax. The property declaration accompanied with a related selector will make up a CSS rule.

• Property Definition: CSS Property
A property definition is a uniform format for documenting property parts. The W3C CSS specification covers seven aspects of a property for each property definition. Our site has added a few additional parts to a property's definition. In this glossary, a property definition will conform to the following look:
property name
  • values: This part specifies the set of valid values for the property.
  • initial value: This part specifies the property's initial value.
  • applies to: This part lists the elements to which the property applies.
  • inherited: This part indicates whether the value of the property is inherited from an ancestor element.
  • percentages: This part indicates how percentages should be interpreted, if they occur in the value of the property.
  • media group: This part indicates the media groups to which the property applies.
  • computed value: This part describes the computed value for the property.
  • property style group: This part indicates the property style group to which the property applies.
  • deprecated: This part indicates whether the property has been dropped from the CSS 2.1 specification.
  • rule example: a sample rule declaration involving the property.


• Property Style Groups: CSS Property
A CSS property style group designates a set of properties designed to affect a particular aspect of a page's appearance and content. There is a set of properties that work for lists, another set for tables, etc. The following table gives a summary of the major CSS property style groups. The "W3C Section" table column relates to the associated section in the CSS 2.1 Specification.

CSS Property Style Groups
Group Name W3C Section Comment
Background Section 14 0
Box Section 8 1
Fonts Section 15 1
Foreground Color Section 14 0
Generated Content Section 12 0
Paged Section 13 0
Positioning Section 9 0
Table Section 17 0
Text Section 16 0
User Interface Section 18 0
Visual Section 10,11 0


• Property Initial Value: CSS Property
The property initial value is analogous to a default value. When a value is explicitly specified, the UA uses that value, otherwise, the browser is required to derive an initial value. Properties with initial values, don't need to be declared unless you are changing or overriding an inherited value. When no value is explicitly specified, the initial value has different meaning for inherited and non-inherited properties. For inherited properties, the initial value is used for the root element only. For non-inherited properties the initial value is used for any element.

• Property Value: CSS Value
The property value is part of the formal CSS property declaration. The value part of the property declaration defines the set of valid values for the property. The complete set of CSS properties require a wide range of value types. The value part of the property declaration may incorporate:

• Prototype Object: JavaScript Object
A prototype is an object used to implement structure, state, and behavior inheritance in EMCA Script. When a constructor creates an object, that object implicitly references the constructor's associated prototype for the purpose of resolving property references. The constructor's associated prototype can be referenced by the expression constructor.prototype.

• Prototype-Based Inheritance: JavaScript OOD
The prototype object is created automatically by JavaScript. Every class has an associated prototype object. Every object (instance) of a class type will share the associated prototype object of that class. When the constructor of a class is used to instantiate an object, all of the properties that are defined in the prototype object for that class will be inherited by the newly created object.

• Pseudo-class Selector: CSS Selector
Pseudo-classes classify elements on characteristics other than their name, attributes or content. The pseudo-class selectors target characteristics that cannot be deduced from the document tree. Both pseudo-class and pseudo-element selectors use the colon to join the target element with the pseudo-class keyword to complete the selector patterns. Here are the links to the four categories of pseudo-classes:

• Pseudo-element Selector: CSS Selector
Pseudo-elements inserts fictitious elements into a document's markup in order to cause special effects. Like the CSS pseudo-class, CSS pseudo-elements classify elements on characteristics other than their name, attributes or content. Document languages do not offer mechanisms to access the first letter or first line of an element's content. CSS pseudo-elements allows for this special kind of access. In the case of the :before and :after pseudo-elements, these selectors will actually insert generated content into the target element. Both pseudo-class and pseudo-element selectors use the colon to join the target element with the pseudo-element keyword to complete the selector patterns. Here are the links to the four pseudo-elements:















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