WEB Developer's Glossary

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• ID Selector: CSS Selector
The ID selector will match an element based on the element's identifier given in the ID attribute. The ID selector is distinguished by the "#" (pound sign). The pound sign joins the ID attribute's value with the associated element much like a fragment identifier. The selector (element & identifier) will match when the same element in the document tree has the matching identifier given for the ID attribute. In HTML, ID attributes are named "id". However, document languages based on XML, may use any name for ID attributes. The ID attribute is a basic SGML token data types. Because markup languages (XML and HTML) are derived from SGML, the SGML data types such as the ID attribute are all common to derived markup languages.

• Identifier, CSS: CSS Specification
In CSS identifiers are names of properties, class names and names given to the ID attributes. Class names and names of ID attributes will show up in selectors, however, these particular identifiers originate from the document language. An identifier has the following syntax limitations and requirements:
  • identifiers that orignate from the CSS language (such as properties and counters) are case-insensitive
  • class names and names of the ID attribute are outside of CSS control, therefore, they must appear in selectors exactly as they appear in the document language
  • valid characters: a-z and 0-9, plus the hyphen and underscore
  • the identifier can not start with a digit or a hyphen followed by a digit
  • identifiers can contain escape characters, the characters being escaped can be any Unicode character

• Identifier, JavaScript: JavaScript Token
Identifiers are lexical tokens that name entities. The concept is analogous to that of a "name". Identifiers are used extensively in virtually all information processing systems. Naming entities makes it possible to refer to them. Objects, functions, variables and statements (label name) may all be named with an identifier. An identifier has the following syntax limitations and requirements:
  • the name is case sensitive,
  • the name must begin with a letter, an underscore or a dollar sign,
  • subsequent characters of the name can be any alphanumeric character, an underscore or dollar sign,
  • the name can not be the same as a JavaScript keyword or reserved word,
  • as of JavaScript v3, the complete Unicode character set may be used in an identifier as long as they are escaped.

• Identifier Operand: JavaScript Operator
The identifier operand is the operand to the right of the binary dot operator. The identifier operand is the name of a method or property associated with the object that represents the first operand. The object operand is the named object that is specified to the left of the dot operator.

• Identity Operators: JavaScript Operator
The identity operators ( symbols: === and !==) determine whether two operands are identical. When the two operands are identical, the equal operator returns true whereas, the not equal operator would return false. Note that the operators will not perform type conversions, therefore, before a true condition can be honored, both operands must be of the same data type. The two identity operators were designed for objects, arrays and functions ( reference types ).
The attributes of this operator are:

• if/else Statement: JavaScript Statement
Almost all programming languages provide a way to selectively branch to particular program statements depending on a condition. JavaScript includes the if/else statement and the switch statements for selection control. The if statement contains a conditional expression that will evaluate to a boolean. The statements immediately following the conditional expression are executed when the expression is true. Otherwise, the program flow proceeds to the next sequential statements immediately after the if statement. There are three flavors of the if/else statement:
  • if: this is a one-way branch when the conditional expression evaluates to true.
  • if/else: this is a two-way branch. The else statement will execute when the conditional expression evaluates to false.
  • else/if: this is a multiple-way branch. By adding another if statement to an else statement, we can create endless branching options. The last statement must be a stand alone else.

• Ignore: CSS 2.1 Specification
This term has two slightly different meanings in this specification. First, a CSS parser must follow certain rules when it discovers unknown or illegal syntax in a style sheet. The parser must then ignore certain parts of the style sheets. Second, a user agent may (and, in some cases must) disregard certain properties or values in the style sheet even if the syntax is legal. For example, table-column elements can't affect the font of the column, so the font properties must be ignored.

• Image Map: Web
An image map is an image that contains hotspots. Its another method to assist with site navigation.

• Implementation: JavaScript OOD
The implementation relates to the members of the defining class and how these members work together. Common OOD goals are to have the implementation separate from the interface and hidden from the client. The advantage is that the implementation can be altered without changing the interface.

• Implicit Assignment: JavaScript Statement
An implicit assignment statement will exclude the var keyword prior to the variable name. A variable assignment without the var keyword will always have global scope.

• in Operator: JavaScript Operator
The in operator ( keyword: in ) is a binary operator with an string operand on the left and a object operand on the right. The operator returns true if the left hand value is the name of a property of the right hand object.
The attributes of this operator are:

• IN Operator Group: JavaScript Operator
The IN operator group consists of the in operator and the instanceof operator. The IN group is a term unique to this site. Note that the ECMAScript Language Specification includes these operators in section 11.4 with other relational operators.

• Increment Operator: JavaScript Operator
The increment operator ( symbol: ++ ) will increment a variable by one. The increment operator has two variations; the pre-increment operation. and the post-increment operation.

• Infinity: JavaScript Value
A primitive value infinity represents the positive infinite number value. This value is a member of the Number type. infinity is also a property of the Global Object. As a property of the Global object, infinity is accessible from anywhere in a program. Negative infinity (-infinity) is also a valid primitive value.

• inherit: CSS Property Value
All CSS properties have the inherit value option. When specified, you assure inheritance. In most cases you do not need to specify inheritance since most properties inherit automatically (the inherited part of the property definition is set to "yes"). Below are the details:

  • The "inherit" value is a keyword in CSS.
  • All properties have the optional value of "inherit".
  • When the "inherit" value is specified for a property, the property takes the same computed value as the property for the element's parent.
  • The computed value from the parent element becomes both the specified value and the computed value for the property.
  • Properties that are not inherited (the property definition is set to "no"), can have inheritance explicitly in forced with the "inherit" value.
  • Properties whose values are set to "inherit" on the root element, will be assigned their initial value.

• Inheritance: CSS 2.1 Specification
CSS property inheritance is facilitated and contolled by the behavior of the document tree. CSS style declarations that are explicitly applied to an element in the document tree may also be implicitly applied to the descendants of this same element. For example, a child element can inherit CSS properties from it's parent. Not all CSS properties allow for automatic inheritance.

• Inheritance: JavaScript OOD
JavaScript has prototype-based inheritance. With Java's class-based inheritance, the subclass inherits the features from the super class without modifying the super class. JavaScript has the Object class that acts like a super class whereby other Native classes can inherit properties and methods. Inheritance reduces code redundancy and complexity and assures a common design theme for all classes in the hierarchical inheritance structure. The other common OOD principles: abstraction, aggregation, encapsulation and polymorphism.

• Inherited: CSS Property Definition
This part of the property definition indicates whether the value of the property is inherited from an ancestor element. The appropriate values for Inherited are either "yes" or "no".

• instanceof Operator: JavaScript Operator
The instanceof operator ( keyword: instanceof ) is a binary operator with an object operand on the left and a constructor operand on the right. This operator will evaluate to true, if the object on the left is an instance of the representive class on the right. The right hand operand must be the constructor function that was used to define and initialize the class. For example, if the Array constructor was used to define and initialize an array object, then, "Array" in the second operand would return true.
The attributes of this operator are:

• Instance Method: JavaScript OOD
An instance method is a method of an object (as opposed to a class method). All objects of a given class type have shared access to an instance method. Object instances do not have there own private copy. In JS, instance methods can be defined in the core native class or defined by the user in the prototype object. Instance methods are created and initialized in the prototype object by setting a property to a function value. All objects created by the class constructor can inherit the instance method and access (invoke) it via the dot operator.

• Instance Property: JavaScript OOD
An instance property is a data value of an object (as opposed to a class property). Instance properties are created and initialized in the class constructor. Each object that is instantiated of a class type will have it's own copy of the instance property(s). An instance property is invoked on it's object.

• Instantiate: JavaScript OOD
Instantiation is the creation of a real instance (object) of an abstraction or template (class). The new operator is used in conjunction with the class constructor to build a new instance of the class. A reference type variable is created at the time the object is declared. The reference type variable points to the object in memory.

• Integer Literal (Decimal, Octal and Hexadecimal): JavaScript Literal
JavaScript allows you to work with integer values in decimal (base: 10), octal (base: 8) and hexadecimal (base:16) formats. For octal literals, the 1st digit must be a zero. For hexadecimal literals, the first two digits must be a zero, that is followed by the letter "x". Although most current version of JavaScript support octal literal representations, ECMA-262 does not support octal. Therefore, octal literals should be avoided. Also, avoid coding decimal integers with leading zeros.

• Integer Operand: JavaScript Operator
The integer operand can represent an index of an array in array operations, shift places in shift operations and integers in bitwise operations. The integer operand should be an expression that evaluates to an integer. The bitwise operators require integers for both first and second operands.

• Interface: JavaScript OOD
The objects (client) of JavaScript class types will interface with the class implementation via an invoking statement (function call for functions and dot operator for methods). The implementation governs the nature of the interface and specifies the rules for interacting with the class.

• Internal ECMAScript Date & Time: JavaScript Date & Time
A Date object contains a number indicating a particular instant in time to within a millisecond. For ECMAScript to work with the internal date, it needs the following framework:
  • The Internal Date is a Single Number: The internal date embedded in the Date object is in milliseconds. It is an incremental number based on one particular point in time.
  • The Starting Point: The exact moment of midnight at the beginning of 01, January, 1970 UTC is represented by the value of +0.
  • The number of milliseconds represented in a day: (24 X 60 X 60 X 1000) = 86,400,000
  • Time Range: The actual range of times supported by ECMAScript Date objects is 100,000,000 days or 8,640,000,000,000,000 milliseconds to either side of 01, January, 1970.
  • Date Class Methods are used to convert date parts both to and from the internal date.
The internal date is the universal time of the UTC time zone at that point in time you instantiated the date object. The internal date does not represent local time. The date methods (other than the UTC versions) will all adjust the internal date to arrive at local current date. They do this by applying the local time zone offset to the internal date.

• Internal Reference: Web
An internal reference is an hyperlink that connects to a page or Web resource inside the current Web site.

• Intrinsic Dimensions: CSS 2.1 Specification
The intrinsic dimensions is the width and height as defined by the element itself, not imposed by the surroundings. CSS does not define how the intrinsic dimensions are found. In CSS 2.1 only replaced elements can come with intrinsic dimensions.


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